People who are terrified of heights may be able to conquer their phobia using a virtual reality app and an inexpensive set of cardboard VR googles, a Dutch study suggests.
Study volunteers using the self-guided cognitive behavioral therapy app had improvements comparable to what patients typically achieve with an actual therapist, researchers report in JAMA Psychiatry.
The study shows “that fear of heights, or acrophobia, can be effectively treated without a therapist through our treatment delivered via smartphone application, called ZeroPhobia, in combination with basic $10 VR goggles,” said Tara Donker, an assistant professor and licensed cognitive behavioral therapist. “This means that effective treatment for specific phobias is possible at a fraction of the cost of existing face-to-face treatment or high-end VR exposure therapy.”
In traditional cognitive behavioral therapy, patients with a phobia are gradually exposed to what they fear, and a therapist helps the patient reinterpret their responses and anxieties.
But not all people with phobias have access to or can afford sessions with a therapist. Donker, who is affiliated with Vrije University Amsterdam, and senior study author Jean-Louis van Gelder of the University of Twente developed the app to offer an affordable alternative. They plan to release it commercially.
The game-like app takes users through a series of challenges that would be terrifying for someone with acrophobia, such as replacing a lightbulb on a kitchen ladder, fixing a lamp while standing on the edge of a high balcony, or saving escaped kittens on a high footbridge above a stage. “The VR scenarios were developed (to cover) a broad spectrum of acrophobia situations,” Donker said in an email.
To test the app, the researchers recruited 193 adult volunteers with acrophobia and randomly assigned them to use the VR treatment or to be on a waiting list. At the beginning, and three months later, volunteers filled out a questionnaire that assessed acrophobia symptoms.
The six animated modules of VR cognitive behavioral therapy were delivered to the treatment group over a three-week period. Participants were able to run the scenarios on their phones, at their leisure.
Based on questionnaire responses, Donker and colleagues concluded that volunteers who used the app had a significant improvement.
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